Countless abbreviations and acronyms are used in the computer industry. Table 6-1 lists some of the common ones.
Note - This list is not intended to be comprehensive. While it includes some common terms, other resources, such as those mentioned at the beginning of this chapter, contain many more. And, of course, new abbreviations and acronyms are created as technologies emerge. Also note that definitions of terms can vary from one computer discipline to another, and even within the same discipline, the style and wording of definitions may vary slightly from source to source.
Table 6-1 Abbreviations, Acronyms, and Units of Measurement
---------------------------------------------------------------------------- Abbreviation Name or Term ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- Numerics 2-D two-dimensional 3-D three-dimensional A A ampere amp ampere ABI application binary interface AC alternating current ACM Association for Computing Machinery A/D analog-to-digital ADC analog-to-digital converter ADDR address ADP automatic data processing ADPCM adaptive differential pulse code modulation ADU automatic dialing unit AF audio frequency AFC automatic frequency control AI artificial intelligence ALGOL Algorithmic Language ALU arithmetic and logic unit a.m. ante meridiem (morning) AM amplitude modulation ANSI American National Standards Institute API application program interface ARPANET Advanced Research Projects Agency Network ASCII American National Standard Code for Information Interchange ASIC application-specific integrated circuit ASR automatic send/receive async asynchronous ATM asynchronous transfer mode AUI attachment unit interface B b bit B byte BASIC beginners all-purpose symbolic instruction code BBS bulletin board system BCD binary-coded decimal BER bit error rate BIOS Basic Input/Output System bisync binary synchronous BJT bipolar junction transistor BNF Backus-Naur Form BOF beginning of file BOT beginning of tape bpi bits per inch bps bits per second Bps bytes per second BSC binary synchronous communication BSD Berkeley Software Distribution BSD block schematic diagram Btu British thermal unit C c centi (prefix) C coulomb C C programming language ûC Celsius C centigrade CAD computer-aided design CAE computer-aided engineering CAI computer-assisted instruction CAM computer-aided manufacturing CASE computer-aided software engineering CCD charge-coupled device ccw counterclockwise CD-ROM compact disc read-only memory CDE Common Desktop Environment CGA color graphics adapter CISC complex instruction-set computer CLUT color look-up table CMOS complementary metal-oxide semiconductor COBOL common business-oriented language cpi characters per inch CPM Control Program for Microcomputers cps characters per second CPU central processing unit CRC cyclic redundancy check CRT cathode ray tube CRU customer-replaceable unit CTCA channel-to-channel adapter CUI character user interface cw clockwise D d deci (prefix) da deka (prefix) D/A digital-to-analog DAC digital-to-analog converter DAT digital audio tape dB decibel DBMS database management system DC direct current DCE data communication equipment DES Data Encryption Standard DIF data interchange format DIMM dual in-line memory module DIP dual in-line package DMA direct memory access DMM digital multimeter DOS Disk Operating System dpi dots per inch DRAM dynamic random access memory DSP digital signal processor DSR data set ready DTD Document Type Definition DTE data terminal equipment DTR data terminal ready DVM digital voltmeter E EAROM electrically alterable read-only memory EBCDIC extended binary-coded decimal interchange code ECC error checking and correction ECC error correcting code ECL emitter-coupled logic EDI electronic data interchange EDP electronic data processing EEPROM electrically erasable programmable read-only memory EEROM electrically erasable read-only memory EGA enhanced graphics adapter EIA Electronics Industry Association E-IDE Enhanced Integrated Drive Electronics EISA Extended Industry Standard Architecture EMI electromagnetic interference EOF end of file EOT end of tape EOT end of transmission EPROM erasable programmable read-only memory EPS Encapsulated PostScript EPSF Encapsulated PostScript Format F F farad ûF Fahrenheit FAQ frequently asked question FAT file allocation table fax facsimile FCB file control block FE framing (bit) error FET field-effect transistor FIFO first-in, first-out FILO first-in, last-out FIPS Federal Information Processing Standard FLOP floating-point operation FLOPS floating-point operations per second FM frequency modulation Fortran formula translation FPA floating-point accelerator FPLA field-programmable logic array FPU floating-point unit FRU field-replaceable unit FTP File Transfer Protocol G g gram G giga (prefix) Gbyte, GB gigabyte GID group identification GIF graphics interchange format GUI graphical user interface H H henry HBA host bus adapter hex hexadecimal HF high frequency HFS hierarchical file system HMOS high-speed negative-channel metal-oxide semiconductor HSM hierarchical storage management HTML Hypertext Markup Language HTTP Hypertext Transfer Protocol Hz hertz I IC integrated circuit IDE Integrated Drive Electronics IEEE Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers IHV independent hardware vendor I/O input/output IOP input/output processor IP Internet Protocol IPC interprocess communication IPS inches per second IPS instructions per second IPS interrupts per second IR information retrieval IR infrared IRQ interrupt request ISA Industry Standard Architecture ISA instruction-set architecture ISAM indexed sequential access method ISDN integrated services digital network ISO International Organization for Standardization ISV independent software vendor J JFET junction field-effect transistor JPEG Joint Photographic Experts Group K k kilo (prefix) K Kelvin Kb kilobit Kbyte, KB, K kilobyte kg kilogram kHz kilohertz km kilometer KSR keyboard send/receive kV kilovolt kW kilowatt kWh kilowatt-hour L LAN local-area network lb pound LCD liquid crystal display LED light-emitting diode LF low frequency LIFO last-in, first-out LILO last-in, last-out LISP List Processor LP line printer lpi lines per inch LSB least significant bit LSD least significant digit LSI large-scale integration LSN least significant nibble LU logical unit LUN logical unit number LUT look-up table M mA microampere mF microfarad mg microgram mH microhenry mm micrometer ms microsecond mV microvolt mW microwatt m meter m micro (prefix) m milli (prefix) M mega (prefix) mA milliampere MA megampere MAC medium access control MAC memory access controller Mb megabit Mbps one million bits per second Mbyte, MB megabyte mF millifarad MFLOPS millions of floating-point operations per second mg milligram mH millihenry MHz megahertz MIDI Musical Instrument Digital Interface MIPS million instructions per second MIS management information system mm millimeter MNP Microcom Networking Protocol modem modulator-demodulator MOS metal-oxide semiconductor MOSFET metal-oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor MPEG Moving Pictures Experts Group ms millisecond MSB most significant bit MSD most significant digit MSI medium-scale integration MSN most significant nibble MTBF mean time between failures MTTR mean time to repair MTU magnetic tape unit MTU maximum transfer unit MUX multiplexer mV millivolt mW milliwatt MW megawatt N n nano (prefix) NaN not a number NC no connection NC normally closed NC numerical control NF noise figure NIC network interface card NMOS negative-channel metal-oxide semiconductor NO normally open NRZ nonreturn to zero NTSC National Television Standards Committee NVRAM nonvolatile random access memory O W ohm OCR optical character recognition OEM original equipment manufacturer OS operating system OSI Open Systems Interconnection oz ounce P p pico (prefix) PABX private automatic branch exchange PAL programmable array logic PAM pulse amplitude modulation PBX private branch exchange PC personal computer PC printed circuit PCB printed circuit board PCI Peripheral Component Interconnect PCM pulse code modulation PCMCIA Personal Computer Memory Card International Association PDL page description language PDL program design language PDM pulse duration modulation PDS partitioned data set PF power factor PHIGS Programmer's Hierarchical Interactive Graphics System PID process identifier PIO programmed input/output pixel picture element PLA programmable logic array p.m. post meridiem (afternoon) PMI Protected Mode Interface PMOS positive-channel metal-oxide semiconductor POSIX Portable Operating System Interface for Computer Environments POST power-on self-test ppb parts per billion ppm parts per million ppm pages per minute PPM pulse position modulation PPP point-to-point protocol PROM programmable read-only memory PS power source PU power unit R rad radian RAID redundant array of inexpensive disks RAM random access memory RC resistance-capacitance RCVR receiver RF radio frequency RFI radio frequency interference RGB red, green, blue RISC reduced instruction-set computer RLL run-length-limited RO receive only ROM read-only memory RPC remote procedure call RTF rich text format RTL resistor-transistor logic R/W read/write RZ return to zero S s second sec second SAM sequential access method SAP service access point SCCS Source Code Control System SCN specification change notice SCR silicon-controlled rectifier SCSI small computer system interface SGML Standard Generalized Markup Language SHF super-high frequency SIMM single in-line memory module SIP single in-line package SLIP serial-line Internet protocol SLSI super-large-scale integration SMF system management facilities S/N signal-to-noise ratio SQL structured query language SRAM static random access memory SSI small-scale integration SVGA Super VGA SWR standing wave ratio sync synchronous T T tera (prefix) TC temperature coefficient TCP Transmission Control Protocol TCP/IP Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol TELEX teletypewriter exchange TIFF tag image file format TSO timesharing option TSR terminate-and-stay-resident TTL transistor-transistor logic TTY teletypewriter TWX teletypewriter exchange service U UART universal asynchronous receiver-transmitter UHF ultra-high frequency UID user identification ULSI ultra-large-scale integration UPS uninterruptible power supply URL Uniform Resource Locator U.S. United States USRT universal synchronous receiver-transmitter UUCP UNIX-to-UNIX Copy UV ultraviolet V V volt VAC volts alternating current VAR value-added reseller VCO voltage-controlled oscillator VDC volts direct current VDT video display terminal VESA Video Electronics Standards Association VEU volume end user VF voice frequency VGA video graphics adapter VHF very high frequency VL VESA local bus VLB VESA local bus VLF very low frequency VLSI very large scale integration VRAM video random access memory VSAM virtual sequential access method W W watt WAIS Wide-Area Information Server WAN wide-area network Wh watt-hour WORM write once, read many WWW World Wide Web ----------------------------------------------------------------------------