6. Technical Abbreviations, Acronyms, and
Units of Measurement

List of Abbreviations and Acronyms

Countless abbreviations and acronyms are used in the computer industry. Table 6-1 lists some of the common ones.

Note - This list is not intended to be comprehensive. While it includes some common terms, other resources, such as those mentioned at the beginning of this chapter, contain many more. And, of course, new abbreviations and acronyms are created as technologies emerge. Also note that definitions of terms can vary from one computer discipline to another, and even within the same discipline, the style and wording of definitions may vary slightly from source to source.

    Table 6-1 Abbreviations, Acronyms, and Units of Measurement

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Abbreviation  Name or Term
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Numerics      
              
2-D           two-dimensional
              
3-D           three-dimensional
              
A             
              
A             ampere
              
amp           ampere
              
ABI           application binary interface
              
AC            alternating current
              
ACM           Association for Computing Machinery
              
A/D           analog-to-digital
              
ADC           analog-to-digital converter
              
ADDR          address
              
ADP           automatic data processing
              
ADPCM         adaptive differential pulse code modulation
              
ADU           automatic dialing unit
              
AF            audio frequency
              
AFC           automatic frequency control
              
AI            artificial intelligence
              
ALGOL         Algorithmic Language
              
ALU           arithmetic and logic unit
              
a.m.          ante meridiem (morning)
              
AM            amplitude modulation
              
ANSI          American National Standards Institute
              
API           application program interface
              
ARPANET       Advanced Research Projects Agency Network
              
ASCII         American National Standard Code for Information Interchange
              
ASIC          application-specific integrated circuit
              
ASR           automatic send/receive
              
async         asynchronous
              
ATM           asynchronous transfer mode
              
AUI           attachment unit interface
              
B             
              
b             bit
              
B             byte
              
BASIC         beginners all-purpose symbolic instruction code
              
BBS           bulletin board system
              
BCD           binary-coded decimal
              
BER           bit error rate
              
BIOS          Basic Input/Output System
              
bisync        binary synchronous
              
BJT           bipolar junction transistor
              
BNF           Backus-Naur Form
              
BOF           beginning of file
              
BOT           beginning of tape
              
bpi           bits per inch
              
bps           bits per second
              
Bps           bytes per second
              
BSC           binary synchronous communication
              
BSD           Berkeley Software Distribution
              
BSD           block schematic diagram
              
Btu           British thermal unit
              
C             
              
c             centi (prefix)
              
C             coulomb
              
C             C programming language
              
ûC             Celsius
              
C             centigrade
              
CAD           computer-aided design
              
CAE           computer-aided engineering
              
CAI           computer-assisted instruction
              
CAM           computer-aided manufacturing
              
CASE          computer-aided software engineering
              
CCD           charge-coupled device
              
ccw           counterclockwise
              
CD-ROM        compact disc read-only memory
              
CDE           Common Desktop Environment
              
CGA           color graphics adapter
              
CISC          complex instruction-set computer
              
CLUT          color look-up table
              
CMOS          complementary metal-oxide semiconductor
              
COBOL         common business-oriented language
              
cpi           characters per inch
              
CPM           Control Program for Microcomputers
              
cps           characters per second
              
CPU           central processing unit
              
CRC           cyclic redundancy check
              
CRT           cathode ray tube
              
CRU           customer-replaceable unit
              
CTCA          channel-to-channel adapter
              
CUI           character user interface
              
cw            clockwise
              
D             
              
d             deci (prefix)
              
da            deka (prefix)
              
D/A           digital-to-analog
              
DAC           digital-to-analog converter
              
DAT           digital audio tape
              
dB            decibel
              
DBMS          database management system
              
DC            direct current
              
DCE           data communication equipment
              
DES           Data Encryption Standard
              
DIF           data interchange format
              
DIMM          dual in-line memory module
              
DIP           dual in-line package
              
DMA           direct memory access
              
DMM           digital multimeter
              
DOS           Disk Operating System
              
dpi           dots per inch
              
DRAM          dynamic random access memory
              
DSP           digital signal processor
              
DSR           data set ready
              
DTD           Document Type Definition
              
DTE           data terminal equipment
              
DTR           data terminal ready
              
DVM           digital voltmeter
              
E             
              
EAROM         electrically alterable read-only memory
              
EBCDIC        extended binary-coded decimal interchange code
              
ECC           error checking and correction
              
ECC           error correcting code
              
ECL           emitter-coupled logic
              
EDI           electronic data interchange
              
EDP           electronic data processing
              
EEPROM        electrically erasable programmable read-only memory
              
EEROM         electrically erasable read-only memory
              
EGA           enhanced graphics adapter
              
EIA           Electronics Industry Association
              
E-IDE         Enhanced Integrated Drive Electronics
              
EISA          Extended Industry Standard Architecture
              
EMI           electromagnetic interference
              
EOF           end of file
              
EOT           end of tape
              
EOT           end of transmission
              
EPROM         erasable programmable read-only memory
              
EPS           Encapsulated PostScript
              
EPSF          Encapsulated PostScript Format
              
F             
              
F             farad
              
ûF             Fahrenheit
              
FAQ           frequently asked question
              
FAT           file allocation table
              
fax           facsimile
              
FCB           file control block
              
FE            framing (bit) error
              
FET           field-effect transistor
              
FIFO          first-in, first-out
              
FILO          first-in, last-out
              
FIPS          Federal Information Processing Standard
              
FLOP          floating-point operation
              
FLOPS         floating-point operations per second
              
FM            frequency modulation
              
Fortran       formula translation
              
FPA           floating-point accelerator
              
FPLA          field-programmable logic array
              
FPU           floating-point unit
              
FRU           field-replaceable unit
              
FTP           File Transfer Protocol
              
G             
              
g             gram
              
G             giga (prefix)
              
Gbyte, GB     gigabyte
              
GID           group identification
              
GIF           graphics interchange format
              
GUI           graphical user interface
              
H             
              
H             henry
              
HBA           host bus adapter
              
hex           hexadecimal
              
HF            high frequency
              
HFS           hierarchical file system
              
HMOS          high-speed negative-channel metal-oxide semiconductor
              
HSM           hierarchical storage management
              
HTML          Hypertext Markup Language
              
HTTP          Hypertext Transfer Protocol
              
Hz            hertz
              
I             
              
IC            integrated circuit
              
IDE           Integrated Drive Electronics
              
IEEE          Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
              
IHV           independent hardware vendor
              
I/O           input/output
              
IOP           input/output processor
              
IP            Internet Protocol
              
IPC           interprocess communication
              
IPS           inches per second
              
IPS           instructions per second
              
IPS           interrupts per second
              
IR            information retrieval
              
IR            infrared
              
IRQ           interrupt request
              
ISA           Industry Standard Architecture
              
ISA           instruction-set architecture
              
ISAM          indexed sequential access method
              
ISDN          integrated services digital network
              
ISO           International Organization for Standardization
              
ISV           independent software vendor
              
J             
              
JFET          junction field-effect transistor
              
JPEG          Joint Photographic Experts Group
              
K             
              
k             kilo (prefix)
              
K             Kelvin
              
Kb            kilobit
              
Kbyte, KB, K  kilobyte
              
kg            kilogram
              
kHz           kilohertz
              
km            kilometer
              
KSR           keyboard send/receive
              
kV            kilovolt
              
kW            kilowatt
              
kWh           kilowatt-hour
              
L             
              
LAN           local-area network
              
lb            pound
              
LCD           liquid crystal display
              
LED           light-emitting diode
              
LF            low frequency
              
LIFO          last-in, first-out
              
LILO          last-in, last-out
              
LISP          List Processor
              
LP            line printer
              
lpi           lines per inch
              
LSB           least significant bit
              
LSD           least significant digit
              
LSI           large-scale integration
              
LSN           least significant nibble
              
LU            logical unit
              
LUN           logical unit number
              
LUT           look-up table
              
M             
              
mA            microampere
              
mF            microfarad
              
mg            microgram
              
mH            microhenry
              
mm            micrometer
              
ms            microsecond
              
mV            microvolt
              
mW            microwatt
              
m             meter
              
m             micro (prefix)
              
m             milli (prefix)
              
M             mega (prefix)
              
mA            milliampere
              
MA            megampere
              
MAC           medium access control
              
MAC           memory access controller
              
Mb            megabit
              
Mbps          one million bits per second
              
Mbyte, MB     megabyte
              
mF            millifarad
              
MFLOPS        millions of floating-point operations per second
              
mg            milligram
              
mH            millihenry
              
MHz           megahertz
              
MIDI          Musical Instrument Digital Interface
              
MIPS          million instructions per second
              
MIS           management information system
              
mm            millimeter
              
MNP           Microcom Networking Protocol
              
modem         modulator-demodulator
              
MOS           metal-oxide semiconductor
              
MOSFET        metal-oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor
              
MPEG          Moving Pictures Experts Group
              
ms            millisecond
              
MSB           most significant bit
              
MSD           most significant digit
              
MSI           medium-scale integration
              
MSN           most significant nibble
              
MTBF          mean time between failures
              
MTTR          mean time to repair
              
MTU           magnetic tape unit
              
MTU           maximum transfer unit
              
MUX           multiplexer
              
mV            millivolt
              
mW            milliwatt
              
MW            megawatt
              
N             
              
n             nano (prefix)
              
NaN           not a number
              
NC            no connection
              
NC            normally closed
              
NC            numerical control
              
NF            noise figure
              
NIC           network interface card
              
NMOS          negative-channel metal-oxide semiconductor
              
NO            normally open
              
NRZ           nonreturn to zero
              
NTSC          National Television Standards Committee
              
NVRAM         nonvolatile random access memory
              
O             
              
W             ohm
              
OCR           optical character recognition
              
OEM           original equipment manufacturer
              
OS            operating system
              
OSI           Open Systems Interconnection
              
oz            ounce
              
P             
              
p             pico (prefix)
              
PABX          private automatic branch exchange
              
PAL           programmable array logic
              
PAM           pulse amplitude modulation
              
PBX           private branch exchange
              
PC            personal computer
              
PC            printed circuit
              
PCB           printed circuit board
              
PCI           Peripheral Component Interconnect
              
PCM           pulse code modulation
              
PCMCIA        Personal Computer Memory Card International Association
              
PDL           page description language
              
PDL           program design language
              
PDM           pulse duration modulation
              
PDS           partitioned data set
              
PF            power factor
              
PHIGS         Programmer's Hierarchical Interactive Graphics System
              
PID           process identifier
              
PIO           programmed input/output
              
pixel         picture element
              
PLA           programmable logic array
              
p.m.          post meridiem (afternoon)
              
PMI           Protected Mode Interface
              
PMOS          positive-channel metal-oxide semiconductor
              
POSIX         Portable Operating System Interface for Computer Environments
              
POST          power-on self-test
              
ppb           parts per billion
              
ppm           parts per million
              
ppm           pages per minute
              
PPM           pulse position modulation
              
PPP           point-to-point protocol
              
PROM          programmable read-only memory
              
PS            power source
              
PU            power unit
              
R             
              
rad           radian
              
RAID          redundant array of inexpensive disks
              
RAM           random access memory
              
RC            resistance-capacitance
              
RCVR          receiver
              
RF            radio frequency
              
RFI           radio frequency interference
              
RGB           red, green, blue
              
RISC          reduced instruction-set computer
              
RLL           run-length-limited
              
RO            receive only
              
ROM           read-only memory
              
RPC           remote procedure call
              
RTF           rich text format
              
RTL           resistor-transistor logic
              
R/W           read/write
              
RZ            return to zero
              
S             
              
s             second
              
sec           second
              
SAM           sequential access method
              
SAP           service access point
              
SCCS          Source Code Control System
              
SCN           specification change notice
              
SCR           silicon-controlled rectifier
              
SCSI          small computer system interface
              
SGML          Standard Generalized Markup Language
              
SHF           super-high frequency
              
SIMM          single in-line memory module
              
SIP           single in-line package
              
SLIP          serial-line Internet protocol
              
SLSI          super-large-scale integration
              
SMF           system management facilities
              
S/N           signal-to-noise ratio
              
SQL           structured query language
              
SRAM          static random access memory
              
SSI           small-scale integration
              
SVGA          Super VGA
              
SWR           standing wave ratio
              
sync          synchronous
              
T             
              
T             tera (prefix)
              
TC            temperature coefficient
              
TCP           Transmission Control Protocol
              
TCP/IP        Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol
              
TELEX         teletypewriter exchange
              
TIFF          tag image file format
              
TSO           timesharing option
              
TSR           terminate-and-stay-resident
              
TTL           transistor-transistor logic
              
TTY           teletypewriter
              
TWX           teletypewriter exchange service
              
U             
              
UART          universal asynchronous receiver-transmitter
              
UHF           ultra-high frequency
              
UID           user identification
              
ULSI          ultra-large-scale integration
              
UPS           uninterruptible power supply
              
URL           Uniform Resource Locator
              
U.S.          United States
              
USRT          universal synchronous receiver-transmitter
              
UUCP          UNIX-to-UNIX Copy
              
UV            ultraviolet
              
V             
              
V             volt
              
VAC           volts alternating current
              
VAR           value-added reseller
              
VCO           voltage-controlled oscillator
              
VDC           volts direct current
              
VDT           video display terminal
              
VESA          Video Electronics Standards Association
              
VEU           volume end user
              
VF            voice frequency
              
VGA           video graphics adapter
              
VHF           very high frequency
              
VL            VESA local bus
              
VLB           VESA local bus
              
VLF           very low frequency
              
VLSI          very large scale integration
              
VRAM          video random access memory
              
VSAM          virtual sequential access method
              
W             
              
W             watt
              
WAIS          Wide-Area Information Server
              
WAN           wide-area network
              
Wh            watt-hour
              
WORM          write once, read many
              
WWW           World Wide Web
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