7. Constructing Text

Endnotes, Footnotes, and Bibliographies

Sometimes you may need to provide complete cross-references to other sources. You can include these references in endnotes at the end of a chapter, in footnotes at the bottom of a page, or in a bibliography at the end of the document. Writers also use endnotes and footnotes as a place to add comments about a discussion.

Writing Endnotes and Footnotes

Endnotes and footnotes provide complete information about the source, including author, title, place of publication, and the page number in the source where readers can find the information. A footnote provides the reference at the bottom of the page, while an endnote groups all references cited within a chapter at the end of the chapter.

    Place the numeral at the end of the sentence, phrase, or quotation for which you are providing a reference. Don't include a period after the superscript numeral. The numeral appears after punctuation marks, except for a dash.

Here are some examples of the content and style of endnotes and footnotes:

    1. Skillin, Marjorie E., Robert M. Gay, and other authorities. Words into Type, 3d ed. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, 1974, p. 150.

    2. Burnett, Rebecca E., Technical Communication, 2d ed. Belmont, California: Wadsworth Publishing Company, 1990, p. 36.

    3. The Chicago Manual of Style, 14th ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1993, p. 701.

    4. Skillin, Words into Type, p. 16.

Writing Bibliographies

A bibliography lists all sources that you refer to in your document. It appears at the end of the document, following the appendixes and before the index.

The format for bibliographies varies depending upon the number and type of resources cited (books, journals, articles, and so forth). The Chicago Manual of Style provides a lengthy discussion on text and formats used in bibliographies. Its guidelines are summarized below.

When citing a book, provide the following information:

For an article in a periodical, provide the following information:

Here are two examples of ways to format text for bibliographies. The first example wraps each line flush left, while the second example provides a two- column format.

    Atre, Anand. Performance Tuning Guide for Sybase SQLserver on Solaris.
    Mountain View, CA: Sun Microsystems, Inc., 1995.

    Yram, Kaytram.   Upgrading Your System With Multimedia. Acton, MA:
    New Look Publishing, 1995.

When citing electronic source material, provide the following information:

Here are some examples of suggested ways to format the various types of electronic sources.

    Joe User, "Citing Electronic Material," in REFSTUFF [database on line] (Silicon, Calif.: REFSTUFF, 1986) [updated 9 January 1996; cited 31 February 1996], identifier no. Q000307. [52 lines.]

    Joe User [juser@macland.org], "Citing Electronic Material," private email message to Sis Admin [sadmin@funix.com], 31 February 1996.

    Joe User [juser@macland.org], "Citing Electronic Material," [ftp.macland.org/pub/local/reference/cites.txt], February 1996.

    Joe User [juser@macland.org], "REPLY: Citing Electronic Material," in GRAMR, (Digest vol. 6, no. 8) [electronic bulletin board] (Dubuque, Iowa, 1995 [cited 31 February 1996)]; available from gramr@miskatonic.edu]; INTERNET.

    Joe User, "Citing Electronic Material," [http://www.macland.org/cites.htm], accessed 31 February 1996.